Donald A. Schön: The reflective practitioner. Læring i I begin with the assumption that competent practitioners usually know more than they can say. They. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action (By Donald A. Schon The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action ( Description. The Reflective Practitioner. FULL ACCESS. Full Access: You have full access You have download access for this title. DownloadPDF MB.
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PDF | The primary mission of constructivists, therefore, is to help students " find their Professionals Think in Action, and Educating the Reflective Practitioner. Donald Schön, The Reflective Practitioner, and The. Comparative Failures of Legal Education. Richard K. Neumann Jr. Maurice A. Deane School of Law at. The Reflective. Practitioner. HOW PROFESSIONALS. THINK IN ACTION. Donald A. Schön. Ashgate. ARENA. Aldershot Brookfield USA Singapore • Sydney.
He carries out an experiment which serves to generate both a new understanding of the phenomenon and a change in the situation. Significantly, to do this we do not closely follow established ideas and techniques — textbook schemes. We have to think things through, for every case is unique. However, we can draw on what has gone before. In many respects, Donald Schon is using a distinction here that would have been familiar to Aristotle — between the technical productive and the practical.
We can link this process of thinking on our feet with reflection-on-action. This is done later — after the encounter.
Workers may write up recordings, talk things through with a supervisor and so on. The act of reflecting-on-action enables us to spend time exploring why we acted as we did, what was happening in a group and so on. In so doing we develop sets of questions and ideas about our activities and practice. The notion of repertoire is a key aspect of this approach.
Practitioners build up a collection of images, ideas, examples and actions that they can draw upon. Donald Schon, like John Dewey , saw this as central to reflective thought. When a practitioner makes sense of a situation he perceives to be unique, he sees it as something already present in his repertoire. To see this site as that one is not to subsume the first under a familiar category or rule.
It is, rather, to see the unfamiliar, unique situation as both similar to and different from the familiar one, without at first being able to say similar or different with respect to what. The familiar situation functions as a precedent, or a metaphor, or… an exemplar for the unfamiliar one.
When looking at a situation we are influenced by, and use, what has gone before, what might come, our repertoire, and our frame of reference. We are able to draw upon certain routines. As we work we can bring fragments of memories into play and begin to build theories and responses that fit the new situation.
First, the distinction between reflection in and on action has been the subject of some debate see Eraut and Usher et al There have also been no psychological elaborations of the psychological realities of reflection in action Russell and Munby However, when we take reflection in and on action together it does appear that Schon has hit upon something significant. However, such processes cannot be repeated in full for everything we do.
Notes and References
There is a clear relationship between reflection in and on action. People draw upon the processes, experiences and understandings generated through reflection on action. In turn, things can be left and returned to. We have to take certain things as read. We have to fall back on routines in which previous thought and sentiment has been sedimented.
It is here that the full importance of reflection-on-action becomes revealed. As we think and act, questions arise that cannot be answered in the present. The space afforded by recording, supervision and conversation with our peers allows us to approach these.
Reflection requires space in the present and the promise of space in the future. Smith Second, there is some question as to the extent to which his conceptualisation of reflective practice entails praxis. While there is a clear emphasis on action being informed, there is less focus on the commitments entailed. While he does look at values and interpretative systems, it is the idea of repertoire that comes to the fore.
In other words what he tends to look at is the process of framing and the impact of frame-making on situations: As [inquirers] frame the problem of the situation, they determine the features to which they will attend, the order they will attempt to impose on the situation, the directions in which they will try to change it. In this process, they identify both the ends to be sought and the means to be employed. We can easily respond in inappropriate ways in situations through the use of an ill-suited frame.
However, what we also must hold in view is some sense of what might make for the good see Smith Al It may well be that this failure to attend to method and to problematize the production of his models and ideas has also meant that his contribution in this area has been often used in a rather unreflective way by trainers. As such they have suffered from being approached in ways that would have troubled Donald Schon.
For him reflective practice was to be enacted.
In a similar fashion, his work with Chris Argyris still features very strongly in debates around organizational learning and the possibilities, or otherwise, of learning organizations. Interestingly, though, it is difficult to find a sustained exploration of his contribution as a whole.
While there are discussions of different aspects of his thinking e. This is a great pity. Going back to books like Beyond the Stable State pays great dividends. Further reading and references Argyris, M.
Increasing professional effectiveness, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Public and private learning in a changing society, Harmondsworth: Penguin. How professionals think in action, London: Temple Smith. Influential book that examines professional knowledge, professional contexts and reflection-in-action. Examines the move from technical rationality to reflection-in-action and examines the process involved in various instances of professional judgement.
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Development of the thinking in the book with sections on understanding the need for artistry in professional education; the architectural studio as educational model for reflection-in-action; how the reflective practicum works; and implications for improving professional education. References Anderson, L.
Argyris, C. Dewey, J. Eisner, E. A personal view, Barcombe: Falmer. Eraut, M.
Table of contents
Etzioni, A. It also helps us detect hegemonic assumptions—assumptions that we think are in our own best interests, but actually work against us in the long run. Lens 1: Our autobiography as a learner. Our autobiography is an important source of insight into practice. As we talk to each other about critical events in our practice, we start to realize that individual crises are usually collectively experienced dilemmas.
Analysing our autobiographies allows us to draw insight and meanings for practice on a deep visceral emotional level. Lens 2: Our learners' eyes. Seeing ourselves through learners' eyes, we may discover that learners are interpreting our actions in the way that we mean them.
But often we are surprised by the diversity of meanings people read into our words and actions. A cardinal principle of seeing ourselves through learners' eyes is that of ensuring the anonymity of their critical opinions.
We have to make learners feel safe. Seeing our practice through learners' eyes helps us teach more responsively. Lens 3: Our colleagues' experiences. Our colleagues serve as critical mirrors reflecting back to us images of our actions.
Talking to colleagues about problems and gaining their perspective increases our chance of finding some information that can help our situation. You are on page 1of 3 Search inside document The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action Donald Schn pages, Basic Books, , reprinted ISBN paper Pp Reflection in Action We go about our daily lives demonstrating what we know through spontaneous and largely unthinking actions or, as Schn puts it, our knowing is in our action.
This way of working is used in a professional context too making decisions about what actions to take based on the soup of knowledge in our heads.
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Schn calls this knowing-in-action, and it sometimes goes hand in had with a more conscious approach to what we do, which Schn calls reflection-in-action. Reflection-in-action come into play when we are dealing with situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness and value conflict. He cites examples of knowing-in-action being employed by a tightrope walker and a sportsman applying their knowledge in order to execute what they do.
The idea of knowing more than we can say is explored. We may not be able to articulate why we do or think something, we just know. Schn gives examples by Chester Barnard who, when writing about the functions of the executive in , differentiated between thinking processes and non-logical processes so all thinking is logical?
Barnard believes that our bias towards thinking blinds us to the non-logical processes which are omnipresent in effective practice. Polanyi believed that we can make informed guesses and act on hunches in an informal and unquantifiable way which he refers to as tacit knowledge, that is to say, we know more than we can say.Teachers[ edit ] The concept of reflective practice is now widely employed in the field of teacher education and teacher professional development and many programmes of initial teacher education claim to espouse it.
Johns' model is comprehensive and allows for reflection that touches on many important elements. This short guide supports medical students, doctors in training and doctors engaging in revalidation on how to reflect as part of their practice. The Reflective Turn.