Learning Another Language Through Actions book. Read 5 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Teaching Of Students With English As A Second Language (TESOL) Learning Another Language Through Actions (New 7th edition) by Dr. James J. Asher, prize-winning writer, researcher and teacher. Demonstrates step-by-step how to apply the Total Physical Response (known worldwide as TPR. The Total Physical Response (TPR) - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or First, experience involves physical action as the student interacts with the . Learning a second language through commands: The second field test. see.
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Download Learning Another Language Through Actions: The Com pdf · Read Online Learning Another Language Through Actions: The C pdf. Reviews. LEARNING ANOTHER LANGUAGE THROUGH ACTIONS: THE COM-. PLETE TEACHER'S GUIDEBOOK. James J. Asher. Los Gatos, Califo. Sky Oak. PDF | Early years of life are the period when emotional, physical, cognitive and language Asher, J. () Learning Another Language Through Actions: The.
January-February For details. Learning a second language through commands: The second field test. Spanish Excerpted from an article by Asher.
The Total Physical Response (TPR): Review of the evidence James J. Asher May 2009
It is possible for a few adults to achieve a near-native pronunciation but it is almost certain they will have some accent even if they live in the foreign country for 50 years. This finding was verified in follow-up studies. The Modern Language Journal. They earned college credit for attending the class three hours one evening per week for two consecutive semesters with no homework.
With a male and female seated on each side of the instructor. This was Other one-word directions in Spanish were "Ande" walk.
Touch the table. Walk to the table. Touch the chair. Touch the chalkboard. Walk to the chair. Prior experiments in Russian Asher. Point to the door. Expand the one-word directions into short sentences Next. Each repetition was varied so that students did not merely memorize a fixed routine. Point to the chair. Point to the table. Touch the door. Point to the chalkboard.
It is important to get those watching to perform The next step was to invite other members of the group who were watching to perform individually.
Walk to the chalkboard. Students experienced: Stand up. But they have never experienced: Now for novel sentences At this point.
Simon Says, Don’t Stress! 5 Active TPR Simulations for a Happy Foreign Language Classroom
The right brain seems to be "fluid. Put the paper on the table.
This is the most important feature that is exclusive with right brain instruction such as TPR. If the instructor is too predictable. Another twist in this course was sentences that are not only novel. From this time on. Another benefit of novel sentences Novel sentences in the target language have another exciting benefit. When Henry runs to the chalkboard and draws a funny picture of Molly. You can see their performance on a documentary DVD entitled.
Novel sentences surprise students and delight them because they instantly understand what is happening. Molly will throw her purse at Henry. Notice two things when you view the video: The analytic and critical left brain is not comfortable with things that are unfamiliar.
But with TPR. Students just slide quietly into other skills without comment. This is something new and unfamiliar. The left brain seems to trigger warnings that other skills have suddenly appeared in the textbook such as reading and writing. Unless the instructor makes an issue out of it. We did not announce. Notice the creativity of the adults When you view the documentary video. It will probably be difficult.
You can't read Spanish. This is a mind bender. You can't do this. I told you so.
Then they answered ten truefalse questions about each story. Listening was followed by reading the stories in a printed booklet and they answered the identical true-false questions. The TPR group with only 45 hours of instruction and no homework vastly outperformed the traditional group with hours and homework. Both groups listened to two stories in Spanish they had never heard before. The t of 2. Notice that students are actually "thinking" in the target language.
You will see performances that are as entertaining as any professional stand-up comic. The dramatic advantage in reading Spanish was surprising because there was no "systematic training" in reading and writing for the TPR group.
Listening skill of TPR students compared with college students in traditional classes When listening skill was compared with college students completing 75 hours of traditional instruction with homework. We were amazed that the TPR group's listening skill was far beyond the traditional group t of 3. These skills were acquired as "incidental learning.
The TPR students with half the number of contact hours in the classroom excelled in both listening skill t of 6. We were surprised with the results: The average student in the TPR class performed at the 70th percentile rank for listening. In speaking skill. Reading The TPR group. TPR enabled students to outperform traditional classes in listening comprehension of Spanish. Another surprisePerformance of TPR adults on standardized proficiency tests We did not expect that adults in the TPR group would perform well on the Pimsleur Spanish Proficiency Tests--Form A because Paul Pimsleur designed the tests to measure the proficiency of students in a typical audio-lingual class.
March The entire study was captured in a documentary DVD entitled. We "pushed the envelope" again by measuring the students in our TPR class with the Pimsleur Spanish Proficiency Test-Form C which was designed for audio-lingual students completing twice as many contact hours as our subjects. Volume LVI. The adults who ranged in age from 17 to 60 met twice a week for two hours per evening.
The objective is minimum input from the instructor and maximum output from the students. The director of a play only shows the actors what to do once or twice. Students are intelligent. They get it. Beware of over-modeling.
A student sat on either side of the instructor. Think of yourself as a director of a theatrical production rather than a teacher.
Refine your editions:
Students listened to one-word utterances in German and followed the instructor by standing. If your students seem to understand in one or two exposures. After 30 minutes Within 30 minutes. This will only exhaust everyone including the instructor. Sit down and ask whether either student would like to try it alone. Students were prepared by asking them to be silent.
Do not underestimate them. Point to the screwdriver on the chair. An interesting innovation from the instructor The instructor included vocabulary items from the pockets and purses of the adults such as money. This personalized the vocabulary more than if the instructor just used the vocabulary from a textbook. Pick up the money under the picture. Touch your right thumb. Touch your eyes. Go to the wall. Reaction of the adult students The adults were excited when they realized that almost immediately they understood everything the instructor was saying in German without memorization.
Point to your toes. Show us both elbows. The second evening Next. For beginners. Pick up the newspaper with your left hand.
Another caution As we would expect from contrastive linguistics. The adults manipulated the cards like they would objects. Expanding the confinement of the classroom Since we were confined the classroom with limited resources available.
Point to the corner and touch your right hip. In addition to body parts. Abstractions were manipulated as objects. German such as. Clarification of translation Translation usually involves a large chunk of the target language as when we tell students. Hence a well-meaning exercise works against the students and the instructor. This switches the learning from a slow-motion "sit and memorize" on the left side of the brain to fast-moving right brain learningfast because the right hemisphere is not analyzing the experience.
Students struggle to please the instructor only to have their left brain evaluate the experience with. Students are not ready. This is an important difference between students in a TPR class and a traditional class. I knew it! You can't do this! You have a thick tongue! You will never be able to do this! Speaking German After 16 hours of internalizing a map of how the German language works i. Every language may have its own unique map.
Second Language Learning and Language Teaching
TPR students begin speaking only when each person is ready while students in a traditional class speak on cue. They handle the cards as objects to be manipulated.
In the German class at the community college. Be ready without looking at this paper. To me the German language is like glass.
I think I will encourage them to try harder. I can see right through it. It shouldn't be difficult. The TPR community college students are ready to speak The instructor explained: After all. Why can't they? I think they are not trying hard enough. The instructor's left brain is also busy with messages like this: It is transparent. I guess I'm no good at foreign languages" Lawson. I did it. Setzen Sie sich! Gehen Sie! At the end of Level 1. That's the way I learned German.
They should be able to do it too. Halten Sie! Drehen Sie sich um! Zeigen Sie!
Gehen Sie an die Wand! Gehen Sie an die Ecke! Gehen Sie an den Stuhl! Gehen Sie an den Tisch! Zeigen Sie uns den Stuhl! At the next meeting. The instructor was thrilled because her students were able to recombine elements to produce novel sentences. Her students in her words were. At 12 o'clock.
Schmidt goes up the stairs. Schmidt orders his lunch. His secretary is sitting on the desk and is writing a letter with a pen. The office is in a large building. He goes up the stairs. He eats his lunch in his office because he has a lot of work.
There lies a box of pencils. German about the story which the students wrote A for "true. He drives in his car. Schmidt goes into his office. The building has an elevator and a staircase. Schmidt goes at 8: Comparison with advanced students in a traditional class An advanced college class with 80 hours of traditional instruction in German was compared with the adults who had only 40 hours of TPR instruction.
The TPR adults with 35 percent fewer instructional hours excelled the traditional class in listening skill t of 6. Results for listening and reading: Comparison with beginning students in a traditional class The TPR adults in the night class at Cabrillo College were compared with students at San Jose State University completing their first semester of college German. Traditional students in a beginning and the advanced class The TPR adults excelled in listening skill t of 3.
In this study with Cabello adults learning with TPR that plays to the right brain with students using motor behavior to interact with the German language.
The role of language aptitude Another interesting finding: John Carroll and others have reported that in traditional language classes where the focus is on left brain instruction such as "listen and repeat after me. As a check on these findings. Language aptitude as measured with the Modern Language Aptitude Test accounted for only 5 percent of the learning and training explained about 30 percent. Training only accounts for 3 percent to 5 percent of the results.
We expect that the advanced students should perform significantly better on the listening and reading measures.
Number Janet King Swaffar and Dr. The result is a negative attitude especially when students conclude that for the enormous amount of work. The problem is attrition The problem nationwide and at the University of Texas was a 45 percent drop in enrollment in the German program from the first to the second semester.
Swaffar and Woodruff decided to test Asher's hypothesis that it is counterproductive to demand speech in a foreign language on cue starting with the first meeting of a class. For their research. Language for Comprehension: One explanation: A University of Illinois survey revealed that 80 percent of foreign language students were spending more time in preparation for their foreign language classes than other courses.
Woodruff won the Paul Pimsleur Award. Margaret S. Strategy for Second Language Learning. Premises for the experimental classes in German 1. Keep corrections of speech and grammar to a minimum to encourage students not to be afraid to play with German.
Procedure This was a massive effort involving students. Fine-tuning can come later as students develop confidence that they can produce German. Delay production for a few weeks while students internalize a map of the German language through commands. Swaffar and Woodruff were anxious that instructors and students might be resistant. Since the instruction was so novel and deviated from the traditional format in foreign language instruction.
The key thought here is that students themselves decided upon the appropriate time to fine-tune with some memorization rather than the usual procedure in a traditional class where the instructor unilaterally makes this decision. Immersion into German German was the exclusive language of instruction in the classroom and for all written directions. Evaluation of the program A surprise: In the second semester after about 17 weeks of experiencing German with TPR.. Enrollment "The German department experienced an overall increase in the number of second semester students" with 72 percent of students instead of the usual 55 percent electing to continue their study of German.
TPR with something extra: Demonstration of Tan-Gau . For five minutes at the end of each class period. For the Canadian experience of immersion into French. With reading proficiency in German as the goal.. Student achievement In evaluating their own progress..
Student attitude More than 80 percent of the students in both the first and second semester felt that their interest in the German language and culture was enhanced in comparison with two large-scale studies reporting that ". Students respond to these commands with physical actions. Initially, students learn the meaning of the commands they hear by direct observation. After they learn the meaning of the words in these commands, the teacher issues commands that use novel combinations of the words the students have learned.
This is to help students differentiate the new words from those previously learned, and to facilitate integration with their existing language knowledge. Some typical other activities are role plays and slide presentations. Asher advises teachers to treat learners' mistakes the same way a parent would treat their children's. Errors made by beginning-level students are usually overlooked, but as students become more advanced teachers may correct more of their errors.
This is similar to parents raising their children; as children get older parents tend to correct their grammatical mistakes more often. Teaching materials are not compulsory, and for the very first lessons they may not be used. As students progress in ability the teacher may begin to use objects found in the classroom such as furniture or books, and later may use word charts, pictures, and realia.
When testing children and adults learning Russian, Asher and Price found that the adults outperformed the children. Simple TPR activities do not require a great deal of preparation on the part of the teacher.
TPR is aptitude-free, working well with a mixed ability class, and with students having various disabilities. Class size need not be a problem, and it works effectively for children and adults. It does not give students the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a creative way. Further, it is easy to overuse TPR-- "Any novelty, if carried on too long, will trigger adaptation. Additionally, the nature of TPR places an unnaturally heavy emphasis on the use of the imperative mood , that is to say commands such as sit down and stand up.
These features are of limited utility to the learner, and can lead to a learner appearing rude when attempting to use their new language.
As a TPR class progresses, group activities and descriptions can extend basic TPR concepts into full communication situations.In speaking skill, our average TPR student was rated, "good. Simple TPR activities do not require a great deal of preparation on the part of the teacher. Visual illusion and action. Students just slide quietly into other skills without comment. Book ratings by Goodreads. Box 1. We would not dream of calling a year-old adult native speaker an L1 learner, so we should not call a person who has been using a second language for 20 years an L2 learner!
Procedure This was a massive effort involving students, 22 teaching assistants, and 7 regular faculty members. Another surprisePerformance of TPR adults on standardized proficiency tests We did not expect that adults in the TPR group would perform well on the Pimsleur Spanish Proficiency Tests--Form A because Paul Pimsleur designed the tests to measure the proficiency of students in a typical audio-lingual class.
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