The main aim of this paper is to focus on the mechanical design and analysis on assembly of gears in gear box when they transmit power at different speeds. Analysis is also conducted by varying the materials for gears, Cast Iron,Cast Steels and Aluminum Alloy etc., presently used. ABSTRACT. The main objective of this paper is to perform mechanical design of differential gear box and analysis of gears in gear box. We have taken grey cast. A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of On rear wheel drive vehicles the differential may connect to half-shafts inside an axle housing .. "The Antikythera Mechanism reconsidered" (PDF).
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1. Differential (mechanical device). A cutaway view of an automotive final drive unit which contains the differential. Input torque is applied to the ring gear (blue), . 6. Understand basic service and repair of a differential. 7. Understand the adjustment of the ring and pinion gears. 8. Identify the parts of the rear drive axle and. differential gear housing free from fatigue failures caused by the Automobile differential gearbox is an assembly of gears to meet the torque.
Differential (mechanical device)
In four-wheel drive vehicles using open differentials usually standard from the factory , only one wheel on each axle powers the vehicle. Advantages include seldom breaking an axle, less tire wear, and they are free as most new vehicles come with open differentials.
Using a series of clutches called a clutch pack , the LSD allows limited wheel slippage while maintaining power to both drive wheels.
The advantage is that both wheels have power at all times.
The disadvantage is that turning is much more difficult since both wheels must turn at the same rpms. So most lockers must be disengaged when making sharp turns.
Lockers can also present the driver with some dangerous situations.
For example, when traversing a slope going crossways if one drive wheel loses traction both lose traction and the vehicle may slide sideways down the slope. Drivers are often warned not to traverse a slope if the surface is loose or slippery. Lockers are desirable on off-road vehicles but are usually not useful on streets and highways.
It is widely thought that a differential mechanism responded to any difference between the speeds of rotation of the two wheels of the chariot, and turned the pointer appropriately.
However, the mechanism was not precise enough, and, after a few miles of travel, the dial could have very well been pointing in the complete opposite direction. The earliest definitely verified use of a differential was in a clock made by Joseph Williamson in It employed a differential to add the equation of time to local mean time , as determined by the clock mechanism, to produce solar time , which would have been the same as the reading of a sundial.
During the 18th Century, sundials were considered to show the "correct" time, so an ordinary clock would frequently have to be readjusted, even if it worked perfectly, because of seasonal variations in the equation of time.
Williamson's and other equation clocks showed sundial time without needing readjustment. Nowadays, we consider clocks to be "correct" and sundials usually incorrect, so many sundials carry instructions about how to use their readings to obtain clock time. In the first half of the twentieth century, mechanical analog computers , called differential analyzers , were constructed that used differential gear trains to perform addition and subtraction.
The U. Navy Mk.
A differential gear train can be used to allow a difference between two input axles. Mills often used such gears to apply torque in the required axis.
Differentials are also used in this way in watchmaking to link two separate regulating systems with the aim of averaging out errors. Greubel Forsey use a differential to link two double tourbillon systems in their Quadruple Differential Tourbillon.
Application to vehicles[ edit ] Play media "Around the Corner" , a Jam Handy film made for Chevrolet explaining how an open differential works A vehicle with two drive wheels has the problem that when it turns a corner the drive wheels must rotate at different speeds to maintain traction. The automotive differential is designed to drive a pair of wheels while allowing them to rotate at different speeds.
In vehicles without a differential, such as karts , both driving wheels are forced to rotate at the same speed, usually on a common axle driven by a simple chain-drive mechanism. When cornering, the inner wheel travels a shorter distance than the outer wheel, so without a differential either the inner wheel rotates too quickly or the outer wheel rotates too slowly, which results in difficult and unpredictable handling, damage to tires and roads, and strain on or possible failure of the drivetrain.
In rear-wheel drive automobiles the central drive shaft or prop shaft engages the differential through a hypoid gear ring and pinion. The ring gear is mounted on the carrier of the planetary chain that forms the differential. This hypoid gear is a bevel gear that changes the direction of the drive rotation.
Hypoid gear pair that connects an automotive drive shaft to a differential Functional description[ edit ] Input torque is applied to the ring gear blue , which turns the entire carrier blue. The carrier is connected to both sun gears red and yellow only through the planet gear green.
Torque is transmitted to the sun gears through the planet gear. The planet gear revolves around the axis of the carrier, driving the sun gears. If the resistance at both wheels is equal, the planet gear revolves without spinning about its own axis, and both wheels turn at the same rate.
If the left sun gear red encounters resistance, the planet gear green spins as well as revolving, allowing the left sun gear to slow down, with an equal speeding up of the right sun gear yellow.
The following description of a differential applies to a traditional rear-wheel-drive car or truck with an open or limited slip differential combined with a reduction gearset using bevel gears these are not strictly necessary — see spur-gear differential : Thus, for example, if the car is making a turn to the right, the main ring gear may make 10 full rotations.
During that time, the left wheel will make more rotations because it has farther to travel, and the right wheel will make fewer rotations as it has less distance to travel.This gives 3 different speeds depending on which motors are on.
Differentials are also used in this way in watchmaking to link two separate regulating systems with the aim of averaging out errors.
Therefore, each pinion couples that spur gear to the other pinion, and in turn, the other spur gear, so that when the drive shaft rotates the carrier, its relationship to the gears for the individual wheel axles is the same as that in a bevel-gear differential. This principle is used in the planning of differential gears.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Automobile differentials.
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